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free grads

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draw line

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draw line

draw line x1 y1 x2 y2

Draws a line from x1, y1 to x2, y2 using current line drawing attributes. See the set line command.

درباره Index , L ,

External Utilities

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External Utilities

    bufrscan
    gribmap
    gribscan
    grib2scan
    gxeps
    gxps
    gxtran
    stnmap

Expressions

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Expressions

A grads expression consists of operators, operands, and parentheses. Parentheses are used to control the order of operation.

Operators are:

    +    Addition 
    -    Subtraction 
    *    Multiplication 
    /    Division
درباره E ,

exp

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exp

exp(expr)

Performs the e**x operation, where expr is x. Works on both gridded and station data.

درباره E ,

exec

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exec

exec file-name <arg0 arg1...arg9>

file-name      the name of a file containing grads commands

درباره E ,

environment variables

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grads | gradsdap    

gradsc | gradsnc | gradshdf | gradsdods   


GrADS is an interactive desktop tool for the analysis and display of earth science data. GrADS is used worldwide andfreely available over the internet.

GrADS implements two data models: a 5-Dimensional gridded data model, and a station data model. In the gridded data model, the dimensions are presumed to be latitude, longitude, level, time, and ensemble. In the station data model, data exist at arbitrary locations in space and time. Four dimensions (longitude, latitude, level, and time) are used as a framework in the station data model to guide which station reports are to be examined. Each data set is placed within a 4- or 5-Dimensional space by the use of a data descriptor file. Both gridded and station data may be described. Gridded data may be non-linearly spaced; gaussian grids and variable resolution ocean model grids are directly supported. The internal data format in a file may be binary, GRIB1, GRIB2, BUFR, NetCDF, HDF4-SDS, or HDF5.

درباره E ,

ensemble dimension

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The Ensemble Dimension

Ensemble Handling in grads
The EDEF entry in a descriptor file 
How to organize the data
Example #1: Lag Ensembles
Example #2: Retrospective Daily Hindcasts from CFS
Example #3: Ensembles with Different Lengths and Start Times in Binary Format


درباره E ,

set lat|lon|lev|time|ens

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set lat|lon|lev|time|ens

set lat|lon|lev|time|ens val1 <val2>

This set command sets one dimension of the dimension environment using world coordinates.

درباره E , L , T ,

q ens

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q ens

q ens

This command returns information about the ensemble dimension. For each ensemble member, the printout includes the index number, ensemble name, length (number of time steps), start time in date format, time axis index of start time, and grib2 codes, if present.

درباره E ,

enable print

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enable print

This command is obsolete beginning with grads version 2.1. It has been replaced by gxprint.

enable print fname

This command opens the output file fname that will contain the instructions in grads metacode format to create a hardcopy of the graphical display. Any existing contents of fname will be lost. The output file fname is referred to as a grads metafile.

درباره E ,

eloop

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eloop

eloop(expr)

The eloop function is similar to the tloop function. When displaying a grads expression (expr) with the E (Ensemble) dimension varying, the eloop function will evaluate the exprwith each designated ensemble member fixed, then reassemble the grids to obtain a final result that is E-varying. The eloop function is provided as a way to obtain E-varying results from functions or expressions that are unable to operate when E is a varying dimension.

درباره C , E ,

set cthick

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set cthick

This command sets the thickness for the contour lines.

Synatx

set cthick thickness

The thickness arg must be an integer in the range of 1 to 12 (or 256 for version 2.1 and later)

درباره C ,

q ctlinfo

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query

The query command allows the user to get information about a variety of aspects of the current grads session. Configuration, plot characteristics, graphics specifics, and file structure are some examples. The use of query pos combined with the coordinate transformations is the basis of many interactive applications with buttons and drop menus. The query command may be shortened to simply q. The syntax is:


    query <option>
    or
    <option>
درباره C ,

set cterp

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set cterp

set cterp on|off

Turns spline smoothing on or off. "Sticks" until reset. Shaded contours are drawn without spline fitting, so to insure an exact match when overlaying contour lines and shaded contours of the same field, specify cterp as off. You can still use the csmooth option, which affects both contour lines and shaded contours.

درباره C ,

set cstyle

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set cstyle

set cstyle style

Sets the contour linestyle. style options are:


    - no contours 
    - solid 
    - long dash 
    - short dash 
    - long dash, short dash 
    - dotted 
    - dot dash 
    - dot dot dash 
درباره C ,

set csmooth

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set csmooth

set csmooth on|off

If on, the grid is interpolated to a finer grid using cubic interpolation before contouring. "Sticks".

درباره C ,

cross sections

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Using grads Station Data

This section describes some of the grads commands and functions that are available for analyzing and displaying station data. Please refer to the companion section About Station Data for information on the structure of station data files, how to create them, and how to instruct grads to interpret them properly.

Here are some quick links for skipping through this section:

  • Operating on Station Data
  • Plotting Station Models
  • Drawing Arbitrary Cross Sections
درباره C ,

set coslat

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set coslat

set coslat on|off

Sets scaling of the Latitude dimension to be the cosine of latitude, producing a "crunched" effect near the poles. Will only work for 1-D plots in which Latitude (Y) is the varying dimension. Sticks until reset.

درباره C ,

()cos

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cos

cos(expr)

Takes the cosine of the expr. Values are assumed to be in radians. Works on both gridded and station data.

درباره C ,

()tcorr​​

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()tcorr

(tcorr (expr1, expr2, tdim1, tdim2

This function produces a spatial map of temporal correlation coefficients.


    expr1   - a valid grads expression that varies in time
    expr2   - a valid grads expression that varies in time and may also vary in X and Y
    tdim1   - starting time dimension expression 
    tdim2   - ending time dimension expression 
درباره C ,

()scorr

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()scorr

This function calculates the spatial correlation between two variables over an X-Y domain. It returns a single number. The syntax is:

    (scorr(expr1, expr2, xdim1, xdim2, ydim1, ydim2
درباره C ,

control file

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Components of a grads Data Descriptor File

DSET
CHSUB
DTYPE
INDEX
STNMAP
TITLE
UNDEF
UNPACK 
FILEHEADER
XYHEADER
THEADER
HEADERBYTES
TRAILERBYTES
XVAR
YVAR
ZVAR
STID
TVAR 
TOFFVAR
CACHESIZE
OPTIONS
PDEF 
XDEF
YDEF
ZDEF
TDEF
EDEF
VECTORPAIRS
VARS
ENDVARS
ATTRIBUTE METADATA 
COMMENTS 

درباره C ,

q contours

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query

The query command allows the user to get information about a variety of aspects of the current grads session. Configuration, plot characteristics, graphics specifics, and file structure are some examples. The use of query pos combined with the coordinate transformations is the basis of many interactive applications with buttons and drop menus. The query command may be shortened to simply q. The syntax is:

درباره C ,

()const

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()const

const (expr, value, <-u|-a>)

This is a powerful function that allows the user to change the missing values of a variable, set all the non-missing values of a variable to a constant, or set all possible values of a variable (both valid and missing) to a constant.


    expr   a valid grads expression 
    value  a constant, either an integer or floating point value 
    -u     all missing data are set to value; non-missing data are unchanged
    -a     all data are set to value, both missing and non-missing
درباره C ,

q config

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query

The query command allows the user to get information about a variety of aspects of the current grads session. Configuration, plot characteristics, graphics specifics, and file structure are some examples. The use of query pos combined with the coordinate transformations is the basis of many interactive applications with buttons and drop menus. The query command may be shortened to simply q. The syntax is:


    query <option>
    or
    <option>
درباره C ,

Compressed

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Reading and Writing Compressed Data Sets

Introduction
Chunking and Cacheing 
Setting Cache Size
Reading Compressed Files
Writing Compressed NetCDF Files
Setting Chunk Size


درباره C ,

commands: attribute

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grads Commands Sorted by Attribute


Animation 
set loopdim      Sets dimension to animate 
set loopincr     Sets looping increment 
set looping      Turns on animation when fewer than three dimesions are varying 
set dbuff        Turns on/off double buffer mode 
swap             Swaps buffers when in double buffer mode



درباره C ,

command line editing

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Command line editing and history

If the readline library compiles on your system then the default prompt will be ga-> as opposed to ga>. This indicates that command line editing is active. The library defaults toemacs mode but can be set up to run using vi syntax.

Here's a list of the commands which may typically be used:


    ctrl-a   go to beginning of line 
    ctrl-e   go to end of line 
    ctrl-f   go forward one char 
    ctrl-b   go backward one char 
    ctrl-d   delete the char 
    ctrl-p   recall previous line
    ctrl-n   recall next line
    ctrl-r   reverse search
درباره C ,

controlling colors

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Controlling Colors in grads

The Pre-Defined Default Colors in grads
The Default Rainbow Palette
Defining New Colors
Transparent Colors
Overriding the Default Palette
Plotting Contours of Constant Color
Omitting Colors
Plotting Non-Continuous Index Grids

درباره C ,

default colors

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The grads Default colors


Col# Description Sample R G B
0 background 0 0 0 (black by default)
1 foreground 255 255 255 (white by default)
2 red 250 60 60
درباره C ,

()coll2gr

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()coll2gr

This function creates a grid from a collection of station data. The syntax is:

(<coll2gr(cnum <,num


    cnum     collection number
    num      number of vertical levels in the output grid (default is 10)
درباره C ,

collect

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collect

This command provides a way for station data profiles and time series to be saved in memory as a set. The command format is:


    collect cnum expr
درباره C ,

set cmin

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set cmin

set cmin value

Contours not drawn below this value. Reset by clear or display.

درباره C ,

set cmax

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set cmax

set cmax value

Contours not drawn above this value. Reset by clear or display.

درباره C ,

set cmark

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set cmark

set cmark marktype

Set the style of the marker for line plots, or for the gxout option 'stnmark'. marktype may be one of the following:

درباره C ,

set clskip

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set clskip

set clskip number <spacing>

number is the number of contour lines to skip when labelling
spacing is an optional argument that controls the minimum distance between labels on a contour line (default = 2.5)

For example, set clskip 2 would label every other contour.

درباره C ,

close

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close

close file#

close the last descriptor file number for current file

درباره C ,

set clopts

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set clopts

This command controls the look of the contour labels drawn on contour lines.

Syntax

set clopts color <thickness <size>>

درباره C ,

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